The book of beginnings
By Moses, the shepherd of God’s people
Every great story has a great beginning. If Moses was speaking, He probably would say, my book of Genesis in Bible, the first book in the Bible, is no exception. It opens with a memorable phrase, “in the beginning,” a phrase that is echoed later in Scripture (John 1:1) the purpose of the book of genesis answers some basic questions:
- Where have we come from?
- Why are we here?
- What has gone so terribly wrong?
It chronicles the beginning of time, of heaven and earth, and of all God’s splendid creatures. It tells the story of a loving God who has acted to restore His broken creation to its original beauty and goodness.
But where has this book come from? Like most things ancient, its origin is cloaked in mystery.
Tradition ascribes the authorship of this and the next four books in the Bible to Moses, a man of extraordinary ability through whom God rescued and gave laws to His people.
But even if Moses was not responsible for the final form of the book we have today, his life and work helped shape it through all the lively stories told and retold by generations that remember and celebrate his life.
Repairing, Bringing True Blessings And Healing
Genesis offers a fascinating account from the origin book of genesis creation through the age of the patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
The Scriptures reveal God as a covenant-making and covenant-keeping partner who relentlessly pursues and loves His creation.
When it becomes clear that Adam’s and Noah’s descendants have strayed from God, He chooses Abraham and his family to begin the work of repairing the world and bringing true blessing and healing to the rest of the families of the earth.
A Chosen People
As the story unfolds, the theme of the book of Genesis recounts the great exploits of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (whose name God changes to Israel).
At times the patriarchs flourish under God’s blessing and protection.
At other times, they fail miserably to remain faithful to what God requires of them. Despite their flaws, God is clearly at work, moving and transforming them into a people who are chosen to declare His love and truth to the world.
As we continue reading, closing in on a brief summary of the book of Genesis, and see the book of Genesis explained, the summary about the book of Genesis are devoted to telling the story of Joseph, one of Israel’s sons, and they relate how Abraham’s descendants come to live as free people in Pharaoh’s Egypt.
Some may find relief, finally understanding book Genesis, but when the Book of Exodus, the book after Genesis begins, it is clear their freedom has been taken away.
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- Creation of the universe
- Construction of the earth.
- Day one—light
- Day two—air spaces
- Day three—dry land and plant life
- Day four—sun, moon, and stars appear
- Day five—animal life
- Day six—fertility of animal life; creation of man
Out of nowhere, time, space, and all the living whirl forth as God speaks the universe into existence. With the utterance of His voice, creation takes form, chaos yields to order, light eclipses darkness, and emptiness fills with life.
Not long after God creates the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, the story takes a tragic turn when the first couple disobeys the clear instruction from God not to eat the fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
As a result, humanity falls from God’s intended perfection. The disastrous consequences of this decisive act are demonstrated in Cain’s murder of Abel, Noah’s flood, and the Tower of Babel.
- The Sabbath Day
- Summary of the first five days of the restoration
- Man’s creation
- Condition placed on man
- Woman’s creation
When human body meets divine spirit, soul is born. Divine breath and sculpted earth come together to make up the living soul. For thousands of years, philosophers and theologians have posed the question: what is a human being? Here God gives the answer.
- The serpent denies the Word of God
- The man and woman disobey the Word of God
- The design of God for the future
- The doctrine of redemption introduced
Genesis provides an image of the ideal marriage: One man. One woman. In a one-flesh relationship. For life. These four elements constitute the ideal, as Jesus reminds His followers (Matthew 19:4–5).
Anything less, anything more, or anything other misses the ideal. In marriage two individuals, who once lived as “me,” come together as “we” in one flesh and one life. No earthly bond can match the intimacy of this divinely sanctioned union.
The story of humanity’s sin begins with a tree and ends on a tree: first, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; and finally, the cross on which Jesus dies. The first tree offers fruit that leads to death, but the second offers a death that leads to eternal life.
- The birth of Cain and Abel
- God gives Cain a second chance
- Cain murders Abel
- The children of Cain and a godless civilization
- The birth of Seth
One of the first things Adam and Eve do after being banished from the garden of Eden is to make a baby. Despite the pain of childbirth, Eve speaks with joy of the birth of her son.
She certainly suffers and could have easily died in childbirth, but the desire to reproduce and the joy of joining with God in the creative process brings great reward. Every parent knows the risks and rewards of bringing forth the next generation.
- Final chapter of Adam’s biography
- The thrilling story of Enoch
- The genealogy of Enoch to Noah
In the first section of the Book of Genesis (chapters 1–11), we have world events—first the Creation, then the Fall, and now the Flood in chapters 5–9. In chapter 5 we have the book of the generations of Adam through Seth. Cain’s line has been given to us and is now dropped. It will be mentioned again only as it crosses the godly line. This is a pattern that will be set in the Book of Genesis.
In one sense, chapter 5 is one of the most discouraging and despondent chapters in the Bible. The reason is simply that it is like walking through a cemetery. God said to Adam, “. . . For in the in Adam all die . . .” (1 Cor. 15:22).
- Cause of the Flood
- God’s deliverance from the judgment of the Flood
- Instructions to Noah for building the ark
- Passengers in the ark
Throughout Scripture God is described as spirit and humans as flesh. God’s statement emphasizes the eternal, life-giving nature of spirit and the mortal, dependent nature of flesh.
Without God’s Spirit-breath sustaining humanity, life itself is not possible. Humans are totally dependent on God. The upper limit of human life is set at roughly 120 years; but the change comes gradually, and Aaron is the last of the patriarchs to live beyond the limit.
- Noah, his family, and the animals enter the ark
- Destruction of all flesh and the salvation of those in the ark
In distinguishing between animals that are ritually acceptable and unacceptable, God is anticipating the instructions He will give His people later regarding holiness and purity (Leviticus 11:1–47; Deuteronomy 14:4–20).
Some animals are ritually acceptable for sacrifices, so they are suitable for food. Other animals are not to be offered to God or eaten. Ultimately, what enters human bodies matters to God; after all He made them.
- The rains cease
- Earth dries—Noah leaves the ark
- Noah builds an altar and offers sacrifice
W e are given the record not only of the building up of the Flood but also of the prevailing and now the assuaging of the Flood. We are told that “God remembered Noah”—how lovely—and that “God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged.” It did not happen just overnight. The buildup of the waters took over 150 days, and then there were 261 days in the assuaging. That looks to me like it is something more than just a local flood.
- New instructions and arrangements
- The sin of Noah and his sons
All life is sacred. Human life is especially so. Protecting it is of utmost importance to God. He takes this so seriously and personally because He made humanity to reflect Him.
We are His earthly representatives, made in His image. To murder another person is to mount an attack on the One who created him.
Noah’s words are not idle words. As the story unfolds, the importance of this curse becomes clear. But as the ancients knew, and we now have forgotten, words have power.
It was with a word that God created the heavens above and the earth below. Now Noah’s words create a new reality, a harsh reality for Ham and his children.
- Sons of Japheth
- Sons of Ham
- Sons of Shem
This is a chapter of genealogies, of families, which are the origin of the nations of the world. This chapter is far more important than the space I’m giving to it would indicate. If you are interested in ethnology and anthropology and the story of mankind on the earth, you may want a far deeper study than you will find here.
H. S. Miller, who has his master’s degree in ethnology, has charted the origin of the nations, using Genesis 10 as a basis for the threefold division of the human family, which is revealed in these three sons of Noah: Ham, Shem, and Japheth. Ethnology makes it evident, by the way, that neither the sons of Japheth nor the sons of Noah.
- The building of the Tower of Babel
- From Shem to Abraham
The desire to settle in one place and build a city runs counter to God’s command to spread out across the earth. They want to make their mark on the world rather than conform to God’s plan for their lives.
They want power and prestige. They want to ensure that they will not be scattered; that is, they want to choose their own destiny. But God has a different plan and purpose. He is the One who determines destiny.
- God’s call and promise to Abraham
- Abraham’s response
- Abraham’s lapse of faith
Out of all the descendants of Noah, God chooses Abram to have a special relationship with Him. He calls Abram to enter into a particular kind of relationship that changes the course of his life and the lives of his people forever.
God has a plan to rescue the world from sin and destruction, and that plan begins with one man. He promises to make Abram a great nation, to bless and protect him, and ultimately to bring true and lasting blessing to the world through his children.
To enter into that promise, Abram must do something daring; he must leave everything he knows and put his trust in God.
Sarai is an unusually attractive woman. Even at her age of 65, Abram is afraid of what the Egyptian men might do when they see her and desire her.
So he takes matters into his own hands and devises a half-truth to conceal their marriage.
We learn later — when Abram repeats this half-truth to Abimelech (chapter 20) — that Sarai and Abram have the same father but a different mother.
- Abraham separates from Lot
- Lot goes to Sodom
- God appears to Abraham and reaffirms His promise
Abram is an exemplary man of faith. Being older than Lot, he by custom has first choice of the property, but he waives his right and grants Lot the first choice.
Given their recent experiences in the famine, it is no wonder that Lot chooses the lush, fertile soils of the Jordan Valley for his new home. But as Lot moves his family east, he moves farther from Abram and closer to danger.
- Kings of the east capture Sodom and Gomorrah
- Abraham delivers Lot
- Abraham refuses booty
This unusual encounter has sparked much interest over the centuries. Melchizedek, it seems, appears out of nowhere. There is no genealogical record for him; he is described simply as the priest-king of Salem, likely a reference to the city that will one day be known as Jerusalem.
The Hebrew root of the name Salem means “peace” (shalom). Melchizedek comes in peace, offering the victors a meal to sustain them on their journey home. Abram, in return, gives Melchizedek ten percent of the spoils claimed in battle.
There are two other scriptural references to Melchizedek in Psalm 110 and Hebrews 7. The writer of Hebrews compares the priestly role of Jesus to the ancient priestly order of Melchizedek showing that Jesus’ role, like that of Melchizedek, is superior in every way to the later Levitical priests.
- God’s revelation of Himself as shield and reward
- Abraham’s faith
- God’s covenant with Abraham
This now is the fourth time that God has appeared to Abram. God is developing this man and bringing him farther along. God does well to appear to him now because Abram has taken a tremendous step of faith in going out and rescuing Lot and in turning down the booty which the king of Sodom offered him.
- Sarai’s suggestion
- Hagar flees
- The tests of Abraham
As we come to this chapter, I must confess that I almost wish it were not in the Bible. After Abram rose to the heights in chapter 15, you would say that he certainly is treading on high places—but he is not perfect.
In chapter 16 we see the lapse of this man’s faith relative to Sarai and Hagar, the Egyptian maid. We have here the unbelief of both Sarai and Abram, and the birth of Ishmael.
This is certainly a letdown after the wonder of the previous chapter.
- God gives Abraham a new name
- God’s covenant
- Ishmael’s inheritance
The Scriptures tell us that names matter. What we call people and places often describes and defines them in ways other kinds of words do not.
People’s names may recall the circumstances of their birth or reflect their character or perhaps depict their destiny.
God changes Abram’s name to Abraham to signify that he will become the founding father of many nations.
The change in Sarah’s name is a bit more complicated because both “Sarai” and “Sarah” mean “princess.” Still the name “Sarah” becomes her covenant-name, the name by which generations know her.
As the wife of Abraham’s youth and old age, Sarah is destined to become the founding princess of many nations, a royal mother to many kings.
- God reaffirms His promise
- God announces the coming destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah
Scripture records an amazing exchange between the Lord and Abraham. In all of the Bible there is nothing quite like it.
In these verses Abraham is negotiating with God over the fate of Sodom and its inhabitants.
But this is no game. Abraham isn’t bargaining with a peddler over the cost of his wares; the lives of many people hang in the balance.
Abraham has followed God long enough and knows Him well enough to stand confident as he presses and probes the extent of God’s mercy.
God’s mercy, he learns, runs deep; but there are limits, and Sodom has crossed the line.
- The angels visit Lot
- Destruction of the Cities of the Plain
Lot leaves the safety of his home to negotiate with the men of the city, all of whom seem determined to have sex with his guests.
Although his courage is commendable, his solution is deplorable — offering his virgin daughters for the deviant pleasures of his neighbors.
But Lot knows their sexual preference is for his guests, not his daughters; so the offer is safe, and he has bought some time.
Lot’s wife makes a fateful turn. She stops and looks back. No one knows why.
Perhaps it is to mourn the past.
Perhaps curiosity gets the better of her; but instead of looking ahead to her destination — a place of safety and security — she turns around and looks back at what she has left behind.
In that instant, as the messenger warned, she perishes. All that is left of her is a standing pillar of salt.
- Abraham misrepresents Sarah
Scripture is brutally honest when it comes to people. It never sugarcoats the depths of human degeneracy.
Here is a prime example:
Lot’s daughters conspire to commit incest with him, an act so reprehensible it is universally condemned.
They do so in order to guarantee their future and security, but as a result they create a future where insecurity and trouble are guaranteed.
The nations which they birth become two of the most troublesome enemy nations God’s people will ever have to deal with. As time goes on, the Moabites and Ammonites become fierce adversaries to the children of Abraham.
- The birth of Isaac
- Hagar and Ishmael cast out
- Abraham and Abimelech at Beer-sheba
Once again Abraham and Sarah take matters into their own hands.
Although God has promised to protect and prosper them, they choose half-truths and deception in order to stay in Abimelech’s favor.
The results could have been disastrous; but God’s intervention stops Abimelech from violating Sarah’s marriage, and in the end obedience preserves them all.
Abraham, it seems, is rewarded, not because of his deception but in spite of it. Since Abimelech does the right thing, God brings hope and healing to his family as well.
Does good then result from evil? Not at all. The good comes from God’s action and everyone’s eventual obedience.
What is clear through these narratives is that God has a plan, and He can manage any contingency in achieving His purpose. When God is on the move, even evil can be turned into good.
- God commands Abraham to offer Isaac
- God restrains Abraham
- God reaffirms His promises
- Abraham returns to Beer-sheba
Abraham leaves Beersheba as he left Haran many years earlier. God calls and he leaves. It is as simple as that. No map. No directions. Just an unwavering trust that God will lead him where he needs to go.
Mount Moriah becomes one of the most important places in all of the promised land, the one place in the world set apart for the worship of the one True God.
According to 2 Chronicles 3:1, Solomon builds his temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem, not far from where God tests Abraham.
We reach the climax of Abraham’s covenant story. God tests Abraham, and he passes with flying colors. Somehow he knows God will provide, for he tells his servants that he and his son will come back from the mountain.
He also knows that God’s covenant promises are going to be fulfilled through Isaac and not another. Although Abraham is willing to sacrifice him, he expects Isaac to still be the one through whom God’s blessings come to the world.
How could it all happen? Only God knows, and Abraham trusts in God and His promises. Abraham’s level of trust is unmatched in all of Scripture. This is why he stands as the founding father of our faith.
- Death and burial of Sarah
This account reveals the complex and rather ambiguous Near Eastern way of negotiating a purchase is as follows:
The transaction takes place publicly at the city gate in the presence of the community leaders who could serve as advisors to the deal or witnesses if the deal goes awry.
Initially Ephron offers to give the land to Abraham for a burial site, but in true Near Eastern style the patriarch indicates respectfully that he desires to purchase it instead.
Ephron’s true motive may be seen in his counteroffer; the property is worth 10 pounds of silver, a not-so-insignificant price for a tract of land on the edge of his property.
Abraham’s motive is clear enough. He wants to own outright a parcel of land near where he and his family have lived for many years, a land promised to him by God, a land where now Sarah has died and needs a proper burial.
Gifts come with strings attached, and Abraham does not want to owe Ephron or anyone else for that matter. He knows full well he owes everything to God.
- A bride for Isaac
We have come in chapter 24 to a major break in this second division of Genesis.
- The first division (chapters 1—11) deals with four great events.
- The second and final division (chapters 12—50), deals with four outstanding individuals.
Specifically, in Genesis 12—23 we have Abraham, the man of faith. Now in chapters 24—26 we have Isaac, the beloved son.
There are three great events in the life of Isaac, and we have already seen two of them.
- The first was his birth,
- and the second was his being offered by Abraham.
- The third is the obtaining of his bride.
They say there are three great events in a man’s life—his birth, his marriage, and his death—and that he has no choice except with the second one, marriage.
Sometimes a man doesn’t seem to have much choice in that connection either, but, nevertheless, these are the three great events in a man’s life.
We come now to the story of how Isaac secured his bride. Abraham sends his trusted servant back to the land of Haran in Mesopotamia to get a bride for Isaac—and we will see the success of the servant in securing Rebekah.
This is a very wonderful love story. It reveals that God is interested in the man whom you marry, young lady, and He is interested in the young lady whom you marry, young man.
There are two institutions that God has given to the human family: one is marriage, and the other is human government (God permits man to rule himself today).
These are two universal and very important institutions. When these are broken, a society will fall apart. The home is the backbone of any society—God knew that—and He established marriage, intending that it give strength and stability to society.
The same thing is true relative to human government—a government must have the power to take human life in order to protect human life—that is the purpose of it. Because human life is sacred, God gave such laws.
The point here is that God is interested in your love story, and it is wonderful when you bring God into it. The first miracle that our Lord performed was at a wedding in Cana of Galilee. I do not know how many weddings He went to, but He went to that one.
The twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis is one of the richest sections of the Word of God because it tells a love story that goes way back to the very beginning.
A very dramatic account is given here of the way that a bride was secured for Isaac, and again, a fantastic spiritual picture is also presented to us.
There are two things that I want you to notice as we go through this chapter.
One is the leading of the Lord in all the details of the lives of those involved. It is a remarkable statement that is made, time and time again, of how God led.
Even in this early day, there were those in that social climate who were looking to God and following Him as an uncivilized people.
Don’t believe a word of it!
Here is a record that shows that man did not start out as that kind of man at all—and we find here the leading of God.
If God could lead in the lives of these folk, He can lead in your life and my life.
The second thing to notice in this chapter is the straightforward manner in which Rebekah made her decision to go with the servant and become the bride of Isaac. This is a tremendous thing which we will notice as we go through.
- Abraham marries Keturah
- Abraham dies
- Esau and Jacob
This is another great chapter of the Bible. It records the death of Abraham and the birth of the twins, Esau and Jacob, to Isaac and Rebekah. It gives the generations of Ishmael and also the generations of Isaac. Then there is the incident relative to the birthright. So this is a remarkable chapter, and it covers a great deal of ground.
This chapter concludes the account of Abraham’s life, but, frankly, his story ended back in chapter 23 when he sent the servant out to get a bride for Isaac.
- God reaffirms His covenant to Isaac
- Isaac misrepresents Rebekah
- Isaac in Gerar
- Isaac goes to Beer-sheba
Isaac repeats the ruse his father used in Egypt and Gerar many years earlier. Abraham told another Abimelech (likely the father or grandfather of this Philistine king) that Sarah was his sister to avoid being killed.
Isaac tries the same trick for the same reason but is soon found out. Many rulers in that day would have killed or severely punished a man for telling such tales and jeopardizing their reign. By GOD’s Grace and Mercy, Abraham and Isaac not only survive, but they grow rich from the experiences.
- Jacob takes Esau’s birthright
- Jacob flees to Laban
This chapter has as its theme Jacob and Rebekah conniving to get the blessing of Isaac for Jacob. It is the blessing which Isaac intended for Esau.
You see, Jacob wanted the blessing of his father. He knew God had promised his mother that the elder would serve the younger; so the blessing was his already.
However, he did not believe God. Rebekah, his mother, did not believe God. Evidently Isaac, the father, didn’t believe God or he would never have attempted to bypass Jacob and give the blessing to Esau.
He followed his own feelings and appetite in contradiction He followed his own feelings and appetite in contradiction to the distinct Word of God.
The method Jacob used in obtaining the birthright cannot be supported on any grounds whatsoever. He used fraud and deceit. His conduct was despicable.
God did not condone this any more than He condoned the conduct of Sarah and Abraham in the matter of Hagar and Ishmael. God could not use the trickery and cleverness of Jacob.
As we shall see, God deals with this man in a very definite way. Jacob had to pay for his sin in the same coin in which he sinned. You will note that as we get into this chapter.
Chapter 26 concluded with Esau, who was about forty years old, marrying two Hittite women. This was a grief to Isaac and to Rebekah.
Now they recognize that, if Jacob is not to marry a Hittite or a Philistine, he must be sent away to Haran where Isaac got his bride from the family of Abraham.
- God appears to Jacob at Bethel
- Jacob makes a vow
When the Lord told Abraham to leave Haran and travel to Canaan, most of his relatives remained in Northern Mesopotamia in towns between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
The area southwest of Haran becomes known as Paddan-aram (the plain of Aram). Abraham and some of the other patriarchs continue to see this land and its people as their own. This is why Jacob and his family are known as Arameans (Deuteronomy 26:5).
Dreams are a bit mysterious. There are many theories about what dreams are and why we dream, but no one knows for sure.
What is sure is that at times in the Scriptures God uses dreams to reveal Himself to His covenant partners. Certainly not everyone has revelatory dreams, and not all dreams are revelatory.
But sometimes, on special occasions, when it suits God’s purposes, dreams can be a vehicle to see, hear, and experience reality as God knows it.
It happens here with Jacob, who has not yet fully embraced the Eternal as his God; and it continues to happen in both testaments with Joseph, Daniel, Peter, and others.
- Jacob meets Rachel
- Jacob serves for Rachel
- Jacob is deceived
Over this chapter I would like to write: “Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.
For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting” (Gal. 6:7–8).
Probably the title that we ought to put over this chapter is “Chickens Come Home to Roost.” In the beginning of this chapter we will see that Jacob begins to reap the harvest of his evil doing.
The passage in Galatians is written primarily for Christians, but it expresses a universal law of God in every age. It is true in any area of life. You sow corn: you reap corn. You sow cotton; you reap cotton. You sow wheat; you reap wheat. You sow tares; you reap tares.
Examples of this principle run all the way through the Scriptures. For instance, Pharaoh slew the male children of the Hebrews, and in time his son was slain by the death angel.
Ahab, through false accusations, had Naboth slain and the dogs licked his blood. God sent His prophet Elijah to Ahab with the message that, as the dogs had licked the blood of Naboth, they would lick the blood of Ahab. And that was literally fulfilled.
You remember that David found this to be an inexorable law which was applicable to his own life. He committed the terrible sins of adultery and murder. God forgave him for his sin. Yet, the chickens came home to roost. He reaped what he had sown. His own daughter was raped and his son slain.
Even Paul the apostle felt the weight of this law. He had given his consent at the stoning of Stephen. Later, Paul was taken outside the city of Lystra and was stoned and left for dead.
Jacob is the classic illustration of this inflexible law. Jacob had lived by his wits. He was rather cocky and clever. He had practiced deceit. He would stoop to use shady methods to accomplish his purpose. And he was proud of his cleverness.
But he will reap what he has sown. As we come to this chapter, Jacob leaves Bethel and resumes his journey. After a period of time (I do not know how long), he arrives in Haran.
- Birth of Jacob’s sons
- Birth of Joseph to Rachel
- Jacob prepares to leave Laban
What Rachel suggests is not at all improper for her time. As you may recall, Sarah and Abraham had a similar situation with Hagar (16:1–4).
Custom allows for these kinds of arrangements, just as technology today allows for an infertile woman to have a child through a surrogate.
Any child born to Bilhah is regarded as Rachel’s, because she has the right to name the child. As we have seen, the naming of a child carries great significance.
- Jacob flees from Haran
- The Mizpah covenant
Jacob, the heel-catcher, has met a kindred spirit. Both men are deceivers and manipulators. Both do whatever they can to get the better of the other. It just comes naturally.
Laban tricks Jacob first by marrying him to Leah before Rachel. Then, after Jacob and he agree on a clear strategy to separate the flocks, Laban goes behind his back and takes away the animals that rightfully belong to Jacob.
But Jacob is crafty, too, and he devises a way to produce striped, speckled, and spotted animals from Laban’s flocks.
After the many years of service, Jacob finally outwits Laban and gains a more valuable flock in the process.
Deception may work for a while, but there are dire consequences that come with it. Jacob’s situation is about to change, and it isn’t long before his deceptive days are behind him.
- Crisis in the life of Jacob
- Wrestling at Peniel
- Jacob’s name changed to Israel
Jacob has come to the end of himself. He has struggled with his brother and the rest of his family for his entire life.
He was born a “heel-catcher,” a deceiver, and he lived the part well. But he can’t go on like this any longer. With Esau on his way, by this time tomorrow he could well be dead and his family killed or captured.
He desperately needs God’s blessing and protection, so he grieves and agonizes through the night. Through stabbing pain Jacob demands a blessing from his unknown assailant, but he cannot receive it until he confesses his name.
Once he does, his name is changed. No longer is he known as Jacob; from now on he is “Israel,” he who wrestles with God. This is the turning point in Jacob’s life.
He lays aside his former self and takes up a new name, a new identity. If Jacob is to be the one to carry on God’s covenant and the source of universal blessing, he has to change.
- Jacob meets Esau
- Jacob journeys to Shalem
In the previous chapter we saw the high point in the life of Jacob, which was his encounter with God. On that night “a man” wrestled with him, and the “man,” not Jacob, did the wrestling.
Jacob was not looking for another fight. He has Uncle Laban in back of him and Brother Esau ahead of him, and the last time he saw both of them they were breathing out threatenings against him. This man Jacob is not in a position to take on someone else.
Therefore, the “man” took the initiative; He was the aggressor. He was, as we have seen, the pre-incarnate Christ. Jacob resisted Him until the touch of God crippled him.
Then, recognizing at last who He was, Jacob clung to Him until He blessed him. From this point on we will begin to see a change in Jacob. As we follow his life in the chapter before us, we will think that we have met a new man. To tell the truth, he is a new man.
- Dinah defiled by Shechem
- Simeon and Levi slay the men of Hamor
Young persons, especially females, are never so safe and well off as under the care of pious parents. Their own ignorance, and the flattery and artifices of designing, wicked people, who are ever laying snares for them, expose them to great danger.
They are their own enemies if they desire to go abroad, especially alone, among strangers to true religion. Those parents are very wrong who do not hinder their children from needlessly exposing themselves to danger.
Indulged children, like Dinah, often become a grief and shame to their families. Her pretence was, to see the daughters of the land, to see how they dressed, and how they danced, and what was fashionable among them; she went to see, yet that was not all, she went to be seen too.
She went to get acquaintance with the Canaanites, and to learn their ways. See what came of Dinah’s gadding. The beginning of sin is as the letting forth of water.
How great a matter does a little fire kindle!
We should carefully avoid all occasions of sin and approaches to it.
The Shechemites submitted to the sacred rite, only to serve a turn, to please their prince, and to enrich themselves, and it was just with God to bring punishment upon them.
As nothing secures us better than true religion, so nothing exposes us more than religion only pretended to. But Simeon and Levi were most unrighteous.
Those who act wickedly, under the pretext of religion, are the worst enemies of the truth, and harden the hearts of many to destruction. The crimes of others form no excuse for us.
Alas! how one sin leads on to another, and, like flames of fire, spread desolation in every direction! Foolish pleasures lead to seduction; seduction produces wrath; wrath thirsts for revenge; the thirst of revenge has recourse to treachery; treachery issues in murder; and murder is followed by other lawless actions.
If we were to trace the history of unlawful commerce between the sexes, we should find it, more than any other sin, ending in blood.
- Jacob returns to Bethel
- God renews the covenant
- Rachel dies at the birth of Benjamin
- death of Isaac
Genesis is filled with moral failures and ethical dilemmas, the kinds of things that happen in real life. Abraham’s children are not perfect people; they — like the rest of us — are deeply flawed and conflicted over the tough moral choices we all have to make.
After Dinah is forcibly raped:
- What are her brothers to do to protect her and restore their family honor?
- How is justice to be done?
- How can they make things right?
These are important questions. The desire to protect those you love and to make things right is a noble impulse, but ignoble deeds follow.
Skilled in deception, her brothers use circumcision — their covenant obligation — to temporarily disable the men and make them vulnerable to attack.
After the carnage, Jacob, the older, wiser head of the family, knows the score: actions like these have consequences. Violence only breeds more violence. If they are to survive, they must leave… soon.
- Esau moves from Canaan to Mount Seir
The registers in this chapter show the faithfulness of God to his promise to Abraham. Esau is at this point, in a place called Edom, that name which kept up the remembrance of him selling his birthright for a mess of pottage.
Esau continued the same profane despiser of heavenly things. In outward prosperity and honor, the children of the covenant are often behind, and those that are out of the covenant get the start.
We may suppose it a trial to the faith of God’s Israel, to hear of the pomp and power of the kings of Edom, while they were bond-slaves in Egypt; but those that look for great things from God, must be content to wait for them; God’s time is the best time.
Mount Seir is called the land of their possession. The land of Canaan was at this time only the land of promise. Mount Seir was in the possession of the Edomites.
The children of this world have their all in hand, and nothing in hope; while the children of God have their all in hope, and next to nothing in hand.
But, all things considered, it is beyond comparison better to have the land of Canaan in promise, than Mount Seir in possession.
- Cause of strife in Jacob’s family
- the dreams of Joseph
- Jacob sends Joseph to his brethren
- Joseph sold into slavery
In Joseph’s history we see something of Christ, who was first humbled and then exalted.
It also shows the lot of Christians, who must through many tribulations enter into the kingdom. It is a history that has none like it, for displaying the various workings of the human mind, both good and bad, and the singular providence of God in making use of them for fulfilling his purposes.
Though Joseph was his father’s darling, yet he was not bred up in idleness.
Those do not truly love their children, who do not use them for business, and labour, and hardships. This handling of children is with good reason called spoiling them.
Those who are trained up to do nothing, are likely to be good for nothing. But Jacob made known his love, by dressing Joseph in finer clothing than the rest of his children.
It is wrong for parents to make a difference between one child and another, unless there is great cause for it, by the children’s dutifulness, or undutifulness. When parents make a difference, children will notice it very soon, and it leads to quarrels in families.
Jacob’s sons did that when they were not around him, which they would not have done at home with him; but Joseph gave his father an account of their ill conduct, that he might restrain them. Not as a talebearer, to sow discord, but as a faithful brother.
God gave Joseph’s betimes the prospect of his advancement, to support and comfort him under his long and grievous troubles. Joseph dreamed of his preferment, but he did not dream of his imprisonment.
Thus many young people, when setting out in the world, think of nothing but prosperity and pleasure, and never dream of trouble.
His brethren rightly interpreted the dream, though they abhorred the interpretation of it. While they committed crimes in order to defeat it, they were themselves the instruments of accomplishing it.
Thus the Jews understood what Christ said of his kingdom. Determined that he should not reign over them, they consulted to put him to death; and by his crucifixion, made way for the exaltation they designed to prevent.
How readily does Joseph wait his father’s orders?
Those children who are best beloved by their parents, should be the most ready to obey them. See how deliberate Joseph’s brethren were against him. They thought to slay him from malice aforethought, and in cold blood.
Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer. The sons of Jacob hated their brother because their father loved him. New occasions, as his dreams and the like, drew them on further; but this laid rankling in their hearts, till they resolved on his death.
God has all their hearts in his hands. Reuben had most reason to be jealous of Joseph, for he was the first-born; yet he proves his best friend.
God overruled all to serve his own purpose, of making Joseph an instrument to save many living people. Joseph was a type of Christ; for though He was the beloved Son of His Father, and hated by a wicked world, yet the Father sent Him out of his bosom to visit us in great humility and love.
He came from heaven to earth to seek and save us; yet then malicious plots were laid against Him. His own not only received Him not, but crucified Him. This He submitted to, as a part of His design to redeem and save us.
They threw Joseph into a pit, to perish there with hunger and cold; so cruel were their tender mercies.
They slighted him when he was in distress, and were not grieved for the affliction of Joseph; for when he was pining in the pit, they sat down to eat bread. They felt no remorse of conscience for the sin.
But the wrath of man shall praise God, and the remainder of wrath He will restrain. Joseph’s brethren were wonderfully restrained from murdering him, and their selling him as wonderfully turned to God’s praise.
When Satan has taught men to commit one sin, he teaches them to try to conceal it with another; to hide theft and murder, with lying and false oaths: but he that covers his sin shall not prosper long.
Joseph’s brethren kept their own and one another’s counsel for some time; but their villany came to light at last, and it is here published to the world.
To grieve their father, they sent him Joseph’s coat of colors; and he hastily thought, on seeing the bloody coat, that Joseph was rent in pieces.
Let those that know the heart of a parent, suppose the agony of poor Jacob. His sons basely pretended to comfort him, but miserable, hypocritical comforters were they all. Had they really desired to comfort him, they might at once have done it, by telling the truth.
The heart is strangely hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.
Jacob refused to be comforted. Great affection to any creature prepares for so much the greater affliction, when it is taken from us, or made bitter to us: undue love commonly ends in undue grief.
It is the wisdom of parents not to bring up children delicately, they know not to what hardships they may be brought before they die.
From the whole of this chapter we see with wonder the ways of Providence. The malignant brothers seem to have gotten their ends; the merchants, who care not what they deal in so that they gain, have also obtained theirs; and Potiphar, having got a fine young slave, has obtained his!
But God’s designs are, by these means, in train for execution.
This event shall end in Israel’s going down to Egypt; that ends in their deliverance by Moses; that in setting up the true religion in the world; and that in the spread of it among all nations by the gospel.
Thus the wrath of man shall praise the Lord, and the remainder thereof will he restrain.
- The sin and shame of Judah
The profligate conduct of Judah and his family. This chapter gives an account of Judah and his family, and such an account it is, that it seems a wonder that of all Jacob’s sons, our Lord should spring out of Judah.
But God will show that his choice is of grace and not of merit, and that Christ came into the world to save sinners, even the chief.
Also, that the worthiness of Christ is of himself, and not from his ancestors. How little reason had the Jews, who were so called from this Judah, to boast as they did.
What awful examples the Lord proclaims in his punishments, of his utter displeasure at sin!
Let us seek grace from God to avoid every appearance of sin.
And let that state of humbleness to which Jesus submitted, when he came to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself, in appointing such characters as those here recorded, to be his ancestors, endear the Redeemer to our hearts.
- Overseer in the house of Potiphar
- tempted, then framed by Potiphar’s wife
- Joseph imprisoned
This disturbing chapter is artfully inserted at the beginning of Joseph’s story for a reason.
Though Joseph has the key role in getting Israel to Egypt and saving his family from the upcoming famine, it is Judah’s line that is chosen by God to play a crucial part in Israel’s more distant future.
Judah’s son, Perez, is the ancestor to King David and ultimately to the Anointed One (Matthew 1). But Perez’s strange birth is overshadowed by the sleazy events that lead to his conception.
The sexually-charged atmosphere of this chapter may well upset some, but Scripture is brutally honest about people and what they do.
Lust and lies, deception and prostitution do not frustrate God’s plan; in fact God has a way of taking them, redeeming them, and including them within His greater will.
- Joseph interprets dreams for the butler and baker
- fulfillment of the dreams
The chief butler and baker of Pharaoh in prison, Their dreams interpreted by Joseph.
The ingratitude of the chief butler. It was not so much the prison that made the butler and baker sad, as their dreams.
God has more ways than one to sadden the spirits. Joseph had compassion towards them. Let us be concerned for the sadness of our brethren’s countenances.
It is often a relief to those that are in trouble to be noticed. Also learn to look into the causes of our own sorrow.
- Is there a good reason?
- Is there not comfort sufficient to balance it, whatever it is?
- Why art thou cast down, O my soul?
Joseph was careful to ascribe the glory to God. The chief butler dream foretold his advancement. The chief baker dream foretold his death. It was not Joseph’s fault that he brought the baker no better tidings.
And thus ministers are but interpreters; they cannot make the thing otherwise than it is: if they deal faithfully, and their message prove unpleasing, it is not their fault.
Joseph does not reflect upon his brethren that sold him; nor does he reflect on the wrong done him by his mistress and his master, but mildly states his own innocence.
When we are called on to clear ourselves, we should carefully avoid, as much as may be, speaking ill of others. Let us be content to prove ourselves innocent, and not upbraid others with their guilt.
Joseph’s interpretation of the dreams came to pass on the very day fixed.
On Pharaoh’s birthday, all his servants attended him, and then the cases of these two came to be looked into.
We may all profitably take notice of our birthdays, with thankfulness for the mercies of our birth, sorrow for the sinfulness of our lives, and expectation of the day of our death, as better than the day of our birth.
But it seems strange that worldly people, who are so fond of living here, should rejoice at the end of one year after another of their short span of life.
A Christian has cause to rejoice that they were born, also that they come nearer to the end of their sin and sorrow, and nearer to their everlasting happiness.
The chief butler remembered not Joseph, but forgot him. Joseph had deserved well at his hands, yet he forgot him. We must not think it strange, if in this world we have hatred shown us for our love, and slights for our kindness.
See how apt those who are themselves at ease are to forget others in distress. Joseph learned by his disappointment to trust in God only. We cannot expect too little from man, nor too much from God.
Let us not forget the sufferings, promises, and love of our Redeemer. We blame the chief butler’s ingratitude to Joseph, yet we ourselves act much more ungratefully to the Lord Jesus.
Joseph had but foretold the chief butler’s enlargement, but Christ wrought out ours; he mediated with the King of Kings for us; yet we forget him, though often reminded of him, and though we have promised never to forget him.
- The dreams of Pharaoh
- Joseph is made overseer of Egypt
- Joseph’s two sons—Manasseh and Ephraim
Although the text is not descriptively clear, the chief baker dies a particularly gruesome death.
The way the story is told, Pharaoh lifts up the baker’s head — a gesture which would seem to signal royal favor — but in the next treacherous instant, his head is removed.
Then his lifeless corpse is impaled on a tree, exposed to the elements.
Because the body is left to rot outside and be eaten by birds — instead of being carefully embalmed and entombed — the Egyptians believe the victim’s soul can never enter the afterlife.
This is the worst form of capital punishment, leaving the cup bearer to fear not only death but also eternal oblivion.
Pharaoh wants there to be no doubt that Joseph is his second-in-command:
- So he holds a formal ceremony and presents Joseph with special gifts, symbols of high office and power.
- He gives Joseph his signet ring, mounted with Pharaoh’s personal seal.
- He dresses him in royal garb and provides him with the finest chariot available.
- He issues decrees that put Joseph in charge of all affairs in Egypt.
- Finally, to top it off and to make sure this son of Israel would be fully accepted into Egyptian society, he gives him an Egyptian name and arranges a marriage with a high-profile priestly family.
Just a few hours before, Joseph was a prisoner. Now he is in charge of all the land.
- Jacob sends ten sons to Egypt
- Simeon left as hostage
- nine brothers return home
Famine in this part of the world normally involves a drought that extends for years. Only those with access to bodies of fresh water can survive.
The Egyptians are perfectly positioned to use the Nile River to irrigate their crops during a drought. Most of the land of Canaan, on the other hand — where Jacob and his sons still live — has little fresh water even when there is no drought.
Although some grain can be moved up and down the Nile or across the Mediterranean over established trade routes, the amount of grain needed to keep large populations alive cannot be moved across land or sea. So people have to go where the food is, or they starve to death.
Israel knows he is out of options at home, so he has to look abroad.
- Jacob sends his sons to Egypt
- the brothers are entertained in Joseph’s home
The brothers of Joseph are in the dark:
- What does this mean?
- Is this some sort of trick?
- Has someone planted the money there only to later claim it or the grain has been stolen?
- Are the Egyptians even now bearing down on them?
- Is this part of the test?
- Should they go back and tell the gruff Egyptian governor what has happened?
- And if they do, will he believe them?
- What happens to Simeon?
They have a thousand thoughts, but their most profound thought occurs next.
- Joseph sends his brothers home
- Judah volunteers to take Benjamin’s place
Judah speaks the truth.
God has uncovered their guilt and exposed it for all to see.
Not that someone in their party has stolen Joseph’s cup — that’s not what he means — but years ago they conspired and stole Joseph’s freedom.
Ironically they could now lose their freedom to Joseph.
- Joseph reveals his identity
- Joseph invites his family to Egypt
Judah has come a long way.
He is no longer the selfish young man who conspired with his brothers to sell Joseph into slavery (37:26–27).
Though he knew that decision would have a devastating effect on his father, Judah did not seem to care. Nor is he the lustful man who propositioned the prostitute who happened to be his daughter-in-law (38:1–30).
Now he is different. His priorities have changed. He is willing to sacrifice his freedom and future to save his father the grief of losing Benjamin.
Judah’s transformation is not immediate; it takes years to accomplish. But his place in the family and his selfless example impact the children of Israel for generations to come.
Once again Joseph and his brothers are parting company.
But this time is much different: they know where he is and who he has become.
Although Joseph has been separated from his brothers for many years, he remembers how they were; and he is counting on the fact that they are a quarrelsome bunch.
He has intentionally given Benjamin more money and clothes than the others. That in itself is enough to cause bickering and squabbling among the crew.
In addition, he knows they are worried. They have just received quite a shock. To learn after all these years that the brother they sold into slavery has become one of the most powerful men in the world takes time to process.
The famine, the journey from Canaan, and the shock of seeing him again have taken a toll on them. Now they have to go back, get their families, and return.
The road home leaves plenty of time to worry about what might become of them, plenty of time for nerves to fray and anger to stir. Joseph knows they have a hard journey ahead, and they need to pull together and not apart.
- Jacob and family move to Egypt
- Jacob and Joseph reunited
God’s promises to Jacob.
Even as to those events and undertakings which appear most joyful, we should seek counsel, assistance, and a blessing from the Lord.
Attending on his ordinances, and receiving the pledges of his covenant love, we expect his presence, and that peace which it confers. In all removals we should be reminded of our removal out of this world.
Nothing can encourage us to fear no evil when passing through the valley of the shadow of death, but the presence of Christ.
We have here a particular account of Jacob’s family. Though the fulfilling of promises is always sure, yet it is often slow.
It was now 215 years since God had promised Abraham to make of him a great nation; yet that branch of his seed, to which the promise was made sure, had only increased to seventy, of whom this particular account is kept, to show the power of God in making these seventy become a vast multitude.
It was justice to Pharaoh to let him know that such a family was come to settle in his dominions.
If others put confidence in us, we must not be so base as to abuse it by imposing upon them.
But how shall Joseph dispose of his brethren?
Time was, when they were contriving to be rid of him; now he is contriving to settle them to their advantage; this is rendering good for evil. He would have them live by themselves, in the land of Goshen, which lay nearest to Canaan.
Shepherds were an abomination to the Egyptians. Yet Joseph would have them not ashamed to own this as their occupation before Pharaoh.
He might have procured places for them at court or in the army. But such preferments would have exposed them to the envy of the Egyptians, and might have tempted them to forget Canaan and the promise made unto their fathers.
An honest calling is no disgrace, nor ought we to account it so, but rather reckon it a shame to be idle, or to have nothing to do.
It is generally best for people to abide in the callings they have been bred to and used to. Whatever employment and condition God in his providence has allotted for us, let us suit ourselves to it, satisfy ourselves with it, and not mind high things.
It is better to be the credit of a mean post, than the shame of a high one. If we wish to destroy our souls, or the souls of our children, then let us seek for ourselves, and for them, great things; but if not, it becomes us, having food and raiment, therewith to be content.
- Joseph presents father and brothers to Pharaoh
- Joseph promises Jacob burial in Canaan
Jacob blessed Pharaoh.
As we have seen, words spoken as a blessing have great meaning at this time.
It may be no more than a greeting spoken, such as “shalom,” which means “peace.”
However the story of Genesis prompts us to consider another possibility.
In God’s plan to redeem and reclaim His creation, He chooses Abraham and his descendants to be a blessing to all the families on earth.
Jacob, Abraham’s grandson and God’s covenant partner, speaks a blessing over Pharaoh that creates a new reality for Egypt and its king. Little does Pharaoh know that this humble nomadic family in need of his help will one day change the course of history.
- Joseph visits Jacob during his last illness
- Jacob blesses Ephraim and Manasseh
Jacob bows his final bow.
Perhaps in the weakness of old age or in thankfulness for Joseph’s promise, or maybe in prayer to the Lord.
In the days of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, custom demands that the firstborn son become the next head of the family and inherit the name, status, and wealth of his father.
But as we have seen throughout Genesis, God makes a habit of ignoring human customs, subverting tradition, and privileging the younger over the older.
When it comes to the covenant, God typically chooses to pass its blessings and duties to the younger. The trend continues throughout Scripture as God selects David and then Solomon, both younger sons, as the two greatest kings over Israel.
It is almost humorous the way Joseph tries to engineer the situation placing Manasseh, his firstborn, at his father’s right hand to receive the greater blessing. But Israel has none of it. He crosses his hands and extends the right hand to Ephraim, the second-born.
Joseph is sure his ailing father has made a mistake. But Jacob knows exactly what he is doing.
- Jacob’s deathbed blessing and prophecy
- final words and death of Jacob
Israel’s blessing speaks not only what is but what will be.
His words establish Judah as the father to the royal line from which King David and his dynasty will one day come.
They anticipate God’s eternal covenant with David that brings peace and prosperity to the entire world.
It is little wonder that early Christians referred to the risen Jesus as “the lion of the tribe of Judah,” for they found in Him the fulfillment of Israel’s blessing.
When Israel’s inheritance of the land is divided, Levi is not included; but Joseph’s two sons become the leaders of two tribes descended from Joseph.
Manasseh and Ephraim take Joseph’s and Levi’s places, filling out the twelve tribes.
- Burial of Jacob in Canaan
- Joseph allays the fears of his brethren
- death and burial of Joseph in Egypt
The mourning for Jacob and His funeral.
Though pious relatives and friends have lived to a good old age, and we are confident they are gone to glory, yet we may regret our own loss, and pay respect to their memory by lamenting them.
Grace does not destroy, but it purifies, moderates, and regulates natural affection.
The departed soul is out of the reach of any tokens of our affection; but it is proper to show respect to the body, of which we look for a glorious and joyful resurrection, whatever may become of its remains in this world.
Thus Joseph showed his faith in God, and love to his father. He ordered the body to be embalmed, or wrapped up with spices, to preserve it. See how vile our bodies are, when the soul has forsaken them; they will in a very little time become noisome, and offensive.
Jacob’s body was attended, not only by his own family, but by the great men of Egypt. Now that they were better acquainted with the Hebrews, they began to respect them.
Professors of religion should endeavour by wisdom and love to remove the prejudices many have against them. Standers-by took notice of it as a grievous mourning.
The death of good men is a loss to any place, and ought to be greatly lamented.
Joseph’s brethren crave his pardon, He comforts them.
Various motives might cause the sons of Jacob to continue in Egypt, notwithstanding the prophetic vision Abraham had of their bondage there.
Judging of Joseph from the general temper of human nature, they thought he would now avenge himself on those who hated and injured him without cause.
Not being able to resist, or to flee away, they attempted to soften him by humbling themselves. They pleaded with him as the servants of Jacob’s God. Joseph was much affected at seeing this complete fulfilment of his dreams.
He directs them not to fear him, but to fear God; to humble themselves before the Lord, and to seek the Divine forgiveness. He assures them of his own kindness to them.
See what an excellent spirit Joseph was of, and learn of him to render good for evil. He comforted them, and, to banish all their fears, he spake kindly to them.
Broken spirits must be bound up and encouraged. Those we love and forgive, we must not only do well for, but speak kindly to.
Joseph’s direction concerning his bones, His death.
Joseph having honored his father, his days were long in the land, which, for the present, God had given him. When he saw his death approaching, he comforted his brethren with the assurance of their return to Canaan in due time.
We must comfort others with the same comforts with which we have been comforted of God, and encourage them to rest on the promises which are our support.
For a confession of his own faith, and a confirmation of theirs, he charges them to keep his remains unburied till that glorious day, when they should be settled in the land of promise.
Thus Joseph, by faith in the doctrine of the resurrection, and the promise of Canaan, gave commandment concerning his bones.
This would keep up their expectation of a speedy departure from Egypt, and keep Canaan continually in their minds. This would also attach Joseph’s posterity to their brethren.
The death, as well as the life of this eminent saint, was truly excellent; both furnish us with strong encouragement to persevere in the service of God.
How happy to set our early in the heavenly race, to continue steadfastly, and to finish the course with joy!
This Joseph did, this we also may do.
Even when the pains of death are upon us, if we have trusted in Him upon whom the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles depended, we need not fear to say, “My flesh and my heart faileth, but God is the strength of my heart, and my portion forever.”
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